For over half a century, the discovery of widespread trophic cascades (an ecological process that begins right from the top of a food chain and falls down to the bottom) remains one of the most exciting scientific findings the world had ever known.
This may sound strange to you but if you follow up the story, you will have a clearer understand of what this is. It all began in 1995, when a small pack of wolves was reintroduced into a park in the United States Known as the Yellow Stone National Park.
Obviously, the killing instincts of a wolf know no bound as it can affect various species of animals. Ironically, they give life to many others. Before these wolves surfaced in the park, they had been away for about 70 years and as a result, the numbers of deer tremendously grew in the park regardless of every human effort to control them. These deer managed to graze away virtually all the vegetation there.
But the most remarkable effects occurred when the wolves arrived, even in their small number. First and foremost, they dealt with some deer by killing them, however, they were just getting started. Due to the despotic control exhibited by the wolves, the deer were restricted to only a small area of the park where they cannot be easily trapped down by the wolves.
Within the space of six years, there were evident changes in the park as the height of the trees quintupled, where birds started finding solace. Forests of aspen and cottonwood and willow began to rise rapidly in bare valley sides which led to the immigration of songbirds in large numbers. Since beavers like to eat trees, they also grew and multiplied exponentially.
Like wolves, beavers are skilled ecosystem workers. They know how to make other species feel at home by creating niches for them. They cater to the well-being of species like ducks, amphibians, muskrats, otters, reptiles and fish by building dams in the rivers. The population of rabbit and mice also increased greatly as the wolves also dealt with coyotes these gave rise to an increase in the population of foxes, badgers, weasels, and hawks.
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More interestingly, the behavior of the rivers was transformed as they began to meander less. More pools formed while the channels narrowed thereby leading to less erosion.